MS, RD, LDN, CSSD, CBS
Rachel holds a Master’s in Nutrition Communication from Tufts University and is also a Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics. She works as a nutrition and wellness coach with focuses on infant and maternal nutrition, and mindful eating.
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Probiotics are live, “good for you” bacteria. When consumed regularly and in the right amounts, these friendly bacteria can be beneficial to your overall health. Different probiotics can have different health benefits, ranging from immune properties to supporting your digestive health.
Probiotics are not “naturally” found in foods, but some foods are made using live bacteria as part of their processing. Examples of these include yogurt, kefir, kimchi, sour pickles, kombucha, sauerkraut, sourdough bread, miso and tempeh. Probiotics are sometimes added to yogurt or infant formula, and they are also available in the form of supplements1.
What are prebiotics?
Prebiotics, on the other hand, promote the growth of our friendly bacteria by acting as their food source. Generally, prebiotics are hard-to-digest fibers that are broken down by the bacteria. Food sources include: onions, garlic, under-ripe bananas, oats, artichokes, asparagus, leeks, psyllium, whole grain wheat, whole grain corn, and chicory.
Did you know?
Breast milk provides more than just nutrition; immune functions, digestive enzymes, and hormones are additional components of breastmilk. Additionally, research has found that breastmilk contains both probiotics and prebiotics. Both of these factors in human milk vary in amount between women, possibly due to dietary intake, as well as over the course of lactation due to changes in infant needs3, 4.
Studies show that some prebiotics can be beneficial for infants by promoting the growth of healthy gut bacteria, supporting the immune system, and stimulating bowel movements and softer stools5,6. Interestingly, babies’ gastrointestinal tracts in the womb are ‘sterile’ and do not have any bacteria. Once born, the infant is exposed to bacteria from the mother and environment. Diet then plays a crucial role in the development of beneficial gut bacteria. Babies who are formula fed tend to have different bacteria in their gut than those who are breastfed7.
Though it is not yet possible to exactly replicate the prebiotics found in human milk, research continues to illuminate the benefits of these compounds in early infancy. For this reason, some infant formulas are beginning to include prebiotics in their formulations.
At around six months, solid foods are introduced. During this time, additional changes occur to our baby’s gut bacteria. Including foods containing prebiotics can help support your baby’s gut health.
Include pre- biotics in your own diet
Prebiotics are good for adults too. When we are used to including these foods in our own diet, it becomes easier to introduce them to our infants once they begin eating solid foods.
Prebiotic foods: Onions, garlic, under-ripe bananas, oats, artichokes, asparagus, leeks, psyllium, whole grain wheat, whole grain corn, and chicory.
Include prebiotics in your infant’s diet
Once your baby reaches the appropriate milestones for eating, and you’ve begun introducing solids at the correct texture for their development, including these foods can help them grow healthy gut bacteria. Below are some foods to consider introducing when your baby is ready. Also note that some infant feeding products, such as cereals, may also have added prebiotics.
Prebiotic foods: Oats, bananas, small pieces of whole wheat toast, soft-cooked asparagus.
Not breastfeeding? Choosing a formula with prebiotics may be beneficial.
Hill, C. Guarner, F. et al. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 11, 506–514 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2014.66. Gibson, G.R., Hutkings, R. et al. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 14, 491–502 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.75. Ballard O., Morrow A.L.. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013 Feb; 60(1): 49–7 doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.002 4. Witkowska-Zimny , M. Kaminska El-Hasan, E. Cells of human breast milk. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2017; 22: 11. Ashley C, Johnston WH, Harris CL, Stolz SI, Wampler JL, Berseth CL. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS): double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Nutr J. (2012); 11:38 Giovannini M, Verduci E, Gregori D, Ballali S, Soldi S, Ghisleni D, Riva E; PLAGOS Trial Study Group. Prebiotic effect of an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides: randomized multicenter trial. J Am Coll Nutr. ( 2014);33(5):385-93. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2013.878232 Probiotics, Prebiotics and the Gut Microbiota. International Life Science Institute, Europe Prebiotics and Probiotics Task Forces. ILSI