MS, RD, LDN
Janel holds a Master’s in Nutrition Communication from Tufts University. As the recipient of the 2010 Massachusetts Young Dietitian of the Year award, she believes in making healthy eating simple, sustainable, and delicious.
Most parents don’t expect their baby to need to go to the NICU after being born, and the unexpected surprise can be stressful, exhausting, and emotionally draining.
A mother who was planning on breastfeeding her baby may not know what to do when her baby will be spending days, weeks or even months in the NICU. While pumping for your NICU baby can be time consuming and challenging, it can be an important way for you to be involved with your baby’s care, and breast milk offers significant health benefits to your baby, especially if he is premature or ill. And even if your baby needs supplementation from formula or specialized human milk fortifier, he will still be getting the benefits of your breastmilk in any amount you can provide.
It is important to
begin pumping right away for your baby. It typically takes between 2 and 5 days
for your milk to come in. Before this
happens, your body makes colostrum; the yellow, thick ‘first milk’. This is
nutrient-dense, packed with all sorts of good things such as immune factors,
and sustains your baby until your milk comes in. You may only get a few drops
of colostrum – this is normal!, but every bit is beneficial.
Healthy newborns typically eat 10 to 12 times per 24 hours – that’s
every 2-3 hours. This is normal as their
bellies are very small, so they need to eat more frequently. Your goal is to mimic the frequency of normal
breastfeeding and establish your milk supply with pumping. Milk supply is typically based on
a supply and demand relationship, so the more the breasts are stimulated and
emptied, the more the body is signaled to make milk. The best way to set up
your milk supply for your baby is to pump completely and frequently, at least
8-12 times per day for at least the first 3-4 weeks. Aim to pump at the
same time each day so that your body knows to make milk at that time. Even if
your baby is unable to eat much or any of your breast milk at the beginning,
keep pumping consistently, as the first month is very important for setting up
your supply. Establishing milk supply will enable you to be prepared if and
when your baby is ready and able to nurse.
After the first month, you
may be able to pump eight times per day and maintain an adequate milk supply
for your growing baby. If your baby is able to be held while in the NICU,
holding your baby skin-to-skin helps stimulate your milk production hormones,
and is recommended before pumping. If you are unable to hold your baby, you can
pump close by while you’re visiting in the NICU, look at pictures or videos of
your baby, or even smell an article of their used clothing
for extra stimulation while you pump. While it is normal to feel stressed when
your baby is ill or in the NICU, try to find support through family and friends
and NICU support staff, as stress can negatively impact milk supply. Also,
taking care of yourself through good nutrition and hydration can help support
your milk supply.
If your baby was born
prematurely, the milk that you express is a little different than what is
produced when babies are born at full term. It is much higher in protein and
minerals, and contains different types of fat that are easy for him to
digest. You will not be getting as much
volume because your baby’s tummy is very small (likely the size of a marble!).
So if you are not getting a lot, do not fear! That is normal.
electric breast pump is the most effective type of breast pump, and most moms
find they’re able to get more milk when using a hospital grade pump. Electric
breast pumps that pump both breasts at the same time are also effective, but
for the exclusive pumper – even if your goal is to eventually nurse – a
hospital grade pump is recommended and can typically be rented monthly from
It is important to
practice safely handling the pumped milk when you are transporting it to the
hospital. Milk storage guidelines are different for premature or hospitalized
babies, as these babies are more at risk for infection. Whenever possible, take
your pump to the hospital to pump fresh milk for baby’s next feeding. It is
important to discuss storage and transportation guidelines for pumped milk for
your premature or ill baby with the NICU medical providers.
You will be spending a lot of time pumping. Try some of these things to
make the best of it:
Make sure to let the
medical personnel at the hospital know you’d like to provide breastmilk for
your baby. Getting their support will be
key to helping make your breastfeeding goals work. Many NICU’s have a lactation
consultant on staff. Ask your baby’s nurse to meet with that person to help
support you in a more personalized way.
“Pumping breast milk for NICU moms.” Womans.org, date accessed, 31 July 2018. <http://www.womans.org/our-services/mother-and-baby/pregnancy-and-childbirth/breastfeeding/pumping/pumping-breast-milk-for-nicu-moms>
“Breastmilk Storage – Guidelines for premature infants.” Kellymom.com, date accessed, 31 July 2018. <https://kellymom.com/ages/bf-preemie/milkstorage-preemie/>